A Short Biography of Frank Murphy: Former Michigan Governor
Justice Frank Murphy of the U. Supreme Court. View more global usage of this file. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. File information. Structured data. Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Summary [ edit ] Description Justice Frank Murphy.
United States , "The law knows no finer hour than when it cuts through formal concepts and transitory emotions to protect unpopular citizens against discrimination and persecution. According to Frankfurter, Murphy was part of the more liberal "axis" of justices on the Court along with Justices Rutledge, Douglas and Black; the group would for years oppose Frankfurter's "judicially restrained" conservative ideology. Murphy is perhaps best known for his vehement dissent from the court's ruling in Korematsu v.
He sharply criticized the majority ruling as "legalization of racism. This was the first time the word "racism" found its way into a Supreme Court opinion Murphy had previously used the term twice in a concurring opinion in Steele v. He would use that word again in five separate opinions before the word "racism" disappeared from Murphy's and the High Court's other opinions for almost two decades, not reappearing until the landmark decision of Loving v. Virginia ,   which struck down as unconstitutional the Virginia anti-miscegenation statute. See also Jim Crow laws.
Although Murphy was serving on the Supreme Court during World War II, he still longed to be part of the war effort; and so during Court recesses he served at Fort Benning, Georgia as an infantry officer. On January 30, , almost exactly one year before Soviet liberation of the Auschwitz death camp on January 27, , Justice Murphy unveiled the formation of the National Committee Against Nazi Persecution and Extermination of the Jews.
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Serving as committee chair, he declared that it was created to combat Nazi propaganda "breeding the germs of hatred against Jews. The eleven committee members included U. Murphy was among 12 nominated at the Democratic National Convention to serve as Roosevelt's running mate in the presidential election that year. Murphy died on July 19, at the age of 59 of coronary thrombosis during his sleep at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit.
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Over 10, people attended his funeral in Detroit. There is a plaque in his honor on the first floor, which is recognized as a Michigan Legal Milestone. It features a nude figure emerging from the left hand of God. Although commissioned in and completed by , the work, partly because of the male nudity involved,  was kept in storage for a decade and a half. Reuther and Ira W. Murphy is also honored with a museum in his home town, Harbor Beach, Michigan.
The facility is housed in former family property and contains numerous personal artifacts from his life. The Murphy Museum is open during the summer months. Murphy's personal and official files are archived at the Bentley Historical Library of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and are open for research.
This also includes an oral history project about Murphy. Supreme Court justice, Washington, D. Pickering , who was a law clerk for Murphy, donated a large sum of money to the law school as a remembrance, establishing the Frank Murphy Seminar Room. Murphy's hometown, Harbor Beach Michigan boasts a Frank Murphy Museum, at his former residence, open by appointment, filled with memorabilia from throughout his career, most notably from the Philippines.
An Inventory of Gubernatorial Archives in the 50 States
Murphy was a bachelor, leading to speculation about his personal life. Speculation has been recorded about the sexual orientation of a few justices who were lifelong bachelors, but no unambiguous evidence exists proving that they were gay. Perhaps the greatest body of circumstantial evidence surrounds Justice Murphy, who was dogged by "[r]umors of homosexuality [ The Supreme Court :. For more than 40 years, Edward G.
Kemp was Frank Murphy's devoted, trusted companion. Like Murphy, Kemp was a lifelong bachelor. From college until Murphy's death, the pair found creative ways to work and live together. As well as Murphy's close relationship with Kemp, Murphy's biographer, historian Sidney Fine , found in Murphy's personal papers a letter that "if the words mean what they say, refers to a homosexual encounter some years earlier between Murphy and the writer.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named Frank Murphy, see Frank Murphy disambiguation. Michigan Department of History, Arts and Libraries. Archived from the original on November 16, Retrieved September 25, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link. Retrieved September 20, Find a Grave. Murphy, ".
Washington, D. January 1, Archived from the original on February 2, Retrieved February 19, Archived from the original PDF on March 27, Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved January 26, Frank Murphy, The Detroit Years.
An Inventory of Gubernatorial Archives in the 50 States | Center on the American Governor
University of Michigan Press. Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. Arc of justice: a saga of race, civil rights, and murder in the Jazz Age. American National Biography. Famous American Trials. University of Missouri, Kansas City. Archived from the original on June 25, Archived from the original on June 27, Retrieved February 3, Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved September 20, — via encyclopedia. Times Herald. Port Huron, MI. Archived from the original on July 16, Retrieved April 26, Rearview Mirror.
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Archived from the original on July 9, Detroit Free Press. February 10, New York: Oxford University Press. Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on February 7, Archived from the original on July 24, Archived from the original on October 6, Justice Murphy and the Bill of Rights. Michigan Bar Journal. Justice Murphy: A Political Biography.
Black: Cold Steel Warrior. Virginia ". Haney February 1, Stanford Law Review. Supreme Court media on Frank Murphy". Archived from the original on February 23, The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, Archived from the original on November 22, Retrieved November 18, History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder: Westview Press. The Telegraph-Herald. July 24, Yearbook Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on September 3, Archived from the original on January 31, Archived from the original on January 14, Archived from the original on January 21, Clarence Darrow, then one of the most prominent trial lawyers in the country, was lead counsel for the defense.
After an initial mistrial of all of the black defendants, Henry Sweet —who admitted that he fired the weapon which killed a member of the mob surrounding Dr. Sweet's home and was retried separately —was acquitted by an all-white jury on grounds of the right of self-defense.